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2016年英语四级语法复习汇总

日期:2016-05-12作者:明仕亚洲资料网阅读次数:103次
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2016年英语四级语法复习

  表语从句构成方式: 

  若从句为陈述句,直接加that; 

  若从句为特殊疑问句:直接保留特殊疑问词,后面的句子变成陈述句语序; 

  若从句为一般疑问句:先把一般疑问句变成陈述句语序,然后在其前加上weather或者if; 

  eg:China is no longer what she used to be. 

  The question is who is responsible for what has happened. 

  一、表语从句的引导词 

  引导表语从句的词有连词that, whether,连接代词和连接副词,关系代词型what,以及as if, as though, because等连词。 

  1. 由that引导 

  The fact is that he doesn’t really try. 事实是他没有做真正的努力。 

  The trouble is that I have lost his address. 麻烦的是我把他的地址丢了。 

  My suggestion is that we should tell him. 我的建议是我们应该告诉他。 

  His sole requirement was (is) that the system work. 他唯一的要求是这个制度能起作用。 

  My idea is that we should start making preparations right now. 我的意见是我们马上就开始做准备工作。 

  2. 由whether引导 

  The question is whether the film is worth seeing. 问题是这部电影是否值得看。 

  【注意】whether 可引导表语从句,但与之同义的if却通常不用于引导表语从句。 

  3. 由连接代词引导 

  You are not who I thought you were. 你已不是我过去所想像的人。 

  The problem is who we can get to replace her. 问题是我们能找到谁去替换她呢。 

  The question is who (m) we should trust. 问题是我们应当相信谁。 

  What I want to know is which road we should take. 我想知道的是我们应走哪条路。 

  4. 由连接副词引导 

  The problem is how we can find him. 问题是我们如何找到他。 

  That was when I was fifteen. 这是我15岁时发生的事。 

  That’s where I first met her. 那就是我第一次遇见她的地方。 

  That’s why he didn’t come. 这就是他没有来的缘故。 

  That’s why I object to the plan. 这就是我反对这个计划的原因。 

  That’s where you are wrong. 这就是你不对的地方。 

  5. 由关系代词型what引导 

  That’s what I want to stress. 这是我想强调的。 

  That’s what we are here for. 我们来这里就为了这个。 

  Fame and personal gain is what they’re after. 他们追求的是名利。 

  He is no longer what he was. 他已经不是以前的他了。 

  6. 由as if / as though引导 

  It isn’t as if you were going away for ever. 又不是你离开不回来了。 

  Now it was as though she had known Millie for years. 现在好像她认识米莉已有好多年了似的。 

  It is not as though we were poor. 又不是我们家里穷。 

  7. 由because引导 

  It is because I love you too much. 那是因为我太爱你了。 

  That’s because you can’t appreciate music. 这是因为你不能欣赏音乐。 

  If I’m a bit sleepy, it’s because I was upall night. 如果我有点困,是因为一夜没睡。 

  It’s because I passed a slip of paper for John to Helen in class. 这是因为我在上课中替约翰传纸条给海伦。 

  【注意】because 可引导表语从句,但与之同义的since, as, for等也不用于引导表语从句。 

  二、连词that的省略问题 

  引导表语从句的that通常不省略,但在口语或非正式文体中有时也可省略: 

  My idea is (that) we should do it right away. 我的意见是我们应该马上干。 

  The trouble is (that) he is ill. 糟糕的是他病了。


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  从句的判别和应用: 

  eg:Weather she will come or not is unknown.(主语从句) 

  It is unknown weather he will come or not.(主语从句) 

  I don’t know weather he will come or not.(宾语从句) 

  The question is weather he will come or not.(表语从句) 

  The question weather he will come or not is not settled.(同位语从句) 

  例:09年6月真题 __________(很多人没有意识到的)is that Simon is a lover of sports , and football in particular . 

  what many people didn’t realize 

  例:08年12月真题 

  It was very dark, but Mary seemed to (本能地知道该走哪条路) . 

  know which way to take by instinct 宾语从句 

  例:07年12月真题 

  In my sixties, one change I notice is that _________________ (我比以前更容易累了). 

  I feel/get tired more easily than before 

  例:真题08年6月 

  Global warming may or may not be the great environmental crisis of the 21st century, but- regardless of whether it is or isn’t - we won’t do much about it. 

  例: Because they usually receive the same score on standard examinations. There is ofen disagreement at who is the better student, Bob or Hellen? 

  例:真题08年12月 

  Your resume should attract a would-be boss’s attention by demonstrating _____ (为什么你是某个特定职位的最佳人选). 宾语从句 

  why you would be the best candidate for a certain position. 

  例: Since my childhood I have found that ________ (没有什么比读书对我更有吸引力). nothing is more attractive/appealing to me than reading


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  状语从句 

  状语从句:两个独立的句子中间用一些含义不同的连接词连接;状语从句用来表达两个句子之间的逻辑关系;分成原因状语、条件状语、结果状语、时间状语、地点状语、让步状语、目的状语、比较状语、方式状语等九大类型; 

  eg:I got up late. 

  I was late for school. 

  Because I got up late, I was late for school. (原因状语从句) 

  I got up late,so I was late for school. (结果状语从句) 

  1. 地点状语: 

  地点状语从句通常由where, wherever,everywhere 引导; 

  eg:Where I live there are plenty of trees. 

  Wherever you work, you will gain much valuable experience as long as you are willing to work. 

  Wherever=no matter where 

  Everywhere they went, they were warmly received. 

  Where there is a will, there is a way. 

  where:不能翻译成在……地方时,通常翻译为如果,表示在……条件下; 

  eg: Where you are confident,you will succeed. 

  eg:Where previously the bank had concentrated on the big infrastructure projects , such as dams, roads and bridges,it begin to switch to projects which directly improved the basic services of a country. concentrated on :集中于;


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  目的状语从句 

  可以由that, so that, in order that, lest, for fear that, in case等词引导; 

  lest:以防;从句中的谓语动词必须用should+动词原形; 

  eg: He wrote the name down for fear that(lest) he should forget it. 

  He took the umbrella with him lest it should rain. 

  in case:以防;与lest不同,从句里的时态不做特殊变化; 

  eg:Take the umbrella with you in case it rains. 

  for feat that:和lest保持一致; 

  eg:A variety of activities should be organized so that participants can remain active as long as they want and then go on to something else without feeling guilty and without letting the other participants down. 

  let…down…:让……感到气馁;


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  结果状语从句 

  结果状语从句常由so… that 或 such…that引导;so保留,that可以省略;如此……以至于……; 

  eg:He didn’t abide by the contract so that he was fined. 

  He was so excited that he couldn’t fall asleep. 

  He made such an inspiring speech that everybody got excited. 

  比较:so和 such (1)so:so +形容词、副词+that;so+形容词+a/an+名词+that; 

  eg:The wind was so strong that we could hardly move forward. 

  He run so fast that I couldn’t catch up with him. 

  It was so hot a day that crops wilted. 

  He is so lovely a boy that everyone loves him. 

  (2)such:such+a/an+形容词+名词+that 

  eg:It was such a hot day that crops wilted. 

  He is such a lovely boy that everyone loves him.


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  非谓语动词是四六级英语的重点,真题试卷中随处可见。非限定动词是谓语的非谓语形式,不受人称和数的限制,在句中可以作除谓语以外的其他任何成分。非限定动词有三种,即不定式,动名词和分词(过去分词和现在分词)。下面带大家一起系统学习一下这三种非谓语动词的基本知识。

  一.动词不定式 

    不定式具有动词的性质,在句中可有自己的宾语,并可被状语修饰。同时还具有名词、形容词和副词的性质,在句中可作主语、宾语、表语、宾语补语、定语、状语等成分。 

  例如: 

  1.To become a good teacher was my hope .(不定式做主语) 

  2.Our purpose is to finish the job in three weeks.(不定式作表语) 

  3.She hopes to get something from the sales.(不定式作宾语) 

  4.My parents won’t allow me to stay out late.(不定式作宾补) 

  5.He was the first to arrive.(不定式作定语) 

  6.He was an idiot not to have realized it.(不定式作状语) 

  注意:动词不定式的否定形式为:“not+ to do”。如 They decided not to call off the plan.

  二.动名词 

  1.动名词作主语,如:Learning a foreign language is not easy. 

  2.动名词作表语,用来表示主语的内容。如:My hobby is collecting stamps. 

  3.动名词作宾语,一般放在动词或动词词组后。如:The shirt can ‘t stand washing. 

  4.注意事项 

  (1)动名词的被动式其形式为“being+过去分词”,如 He narrowly escaped being run over. 

  (2)在动词need, require, want, deserve后,用动名词的主动形式表示被动意义。其用法详单与不定时的被动结构。如The watch needs repairing.(=The watch needs to be repaired.) 

  (3)在(be) worth 后面只能用动名词的主动语态来表示被动意义。如 This is a good book worth reading.

  三.分词 

  分词有现在分词(-ing)和过去分词(-ed)两种。他们在语态和时态方面的含义有较大差别。一般来说,现在分词表示的意义是主动和进行;过去分词表示的意义时被动和完成。如 running water/fallen leaves. 

  1.分词作表语,如 The situation is encouraging. The door remained locked. 

  2.分词作定语,前置定语和后置定语均可。如 This is a pressing problem.(前置定语) 

  3.分词作宾语补足语,如You’d better have your hair cut. 

  4.分词作状语,可表示时间、原因、让步、条件、方式或伴随状况。 

  如 Though tired, he still continued reading. 

  除了掌握以上分列出来的知识点,考生们还应勤加练习,查漏补缺,辨别非谓语在句子中所做的成分和起到的作用,理解非谓语动词的产生就是英语追求简洁的结果,英语中多长句的现象也就不难理解了。


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  英语四级高级语法:状语从句省略

  1、 主句和从句的主语保持一致,称为分词作状语。

  2、 若前后主语不一致,则称作独立主格结构。

  1、 分词作状语

  (1)条件:状语从句,前后主语一致

  (2)形式:分词作状语在句首+分词作状语在句后

  (3)省略方式:关系词(可保留)+动词形式变化(-ing/-ed)

  一、用作时间状语

  1. 典型例句

  When [As soon as] the mouse saw the cat, it ran off.

  Seeing the cat, the mouse ran off. 见到猫,老鼠就跑了。

  真题示例:When _______ different cultures, we often pay attention only to the differences without noticing the many similarities. (2006浙江卷)

  A. compared B. being compared C. comparing D. having compared

  二、用作原因状语

  1. 典型例句

  As she was very weak, she couldn’t move.

  Because she was much discouraged, she moved on to London.

  (1) ______ with so much trouble, we failed to complete the task on time. (2006四川卷)

  A. Faced B. Face C. Facing D. To face

  三、用作条件状语

  1. 典型例句

  If you work hard, you will succeed.

  If we are united, we stand; if we are divided, we fall.

  If we had been given more time, we could have done it better.

  四、用作让步状语

  1. 典型例句

  Although living miles away, he attended the course. 虽然住在几英里以外,他仍去上课。

  五、用作伴随状语

  1. 典型例句

  He sat in the chair reading a newspaper. 他坐在椅子上看报。

  He came in, followed by his wife. 他走了进来,后面跟着他的妻子。

  My cousin came to see me from the country, ______ me a full basket of fresh fruits.

  A. brought B. bringing C. to bring D. had brought

  We often provide our children with toys, footballs or basketballs, _____ that all children like these things.

  A. thinking B. think C. to think D. thought

  六、用作方式状语

  1. 典型例句

  He came as we expected.

  He came as he was expected.

  I'm returning your letter as requested. 我按要求给你退信。

  七、用作结果状语

  1. 典型例句

  He fired and killed one of the passers-by.

  He fired, killing one of the passers-by. 他开枪了,打死了一个过路人。

  He died and left his wife with five children.

  He died, leaving his wife with five children. 他死了,留下他妻子和五个孩子。

  He glanced over at her, ______ that though she was tiny, she seemed very well put together.

  A. noting B. noted C. to note D. having noted

  Speeding off in a stolen car, the thief thinks he has got a great catch. But he is in for an unwelcome surprise. (06.6旧)

  _____ by the superstars on television, the young athletes trained hard and played intensely.

  A) Imitated B) Imposed C) Insured D) Inspired (06.6旧)

  When applying for a job, one usually has to submit a resume or curriculum vitae (CV). Alarmed by this state of _____ , the Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association (JAMA) proceeded a comprehensive study of the market in 2006. (09.完形)

  A) mess B) boom C) growth D) decay

  Sticking to the low end of the government estimates, the National Resources Defence Council says there were maybe no more than 3.2 billion barrels of economically recoverable oil in the coastal plain of the ANWR, a drop in the bucket that would do virutally nothing to ease America's energy problems..

  在状语从句中,若前后主从句主语一致,则省略从句的主语,将后面的动词发生形式上的变化, 主动语态变成ing形式,若是被动语态,则变为ed 形式。

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  英语四级高级语法:部分倒装

  部分倒装的形式: 主谓宾保持原来的形式,谓语动词的助动词放到主语的前面。

  1、当句首状语为否定词或带有否定意义的词语时,这个句子就需要部分倒装。

  这类词语有hardly, scarcely, rarely, seldom, never, few,little, less, at no time, by no means, in no case, under no circumstance, in no way,on no account, on no consideration, no longer, not only等。

  eg. He never smokes. 他从来不抽烟。

  Never does he smoke. eg. Not only did the customer complain about the food, he also refused to pay for it. 这位顾客不仅仅 抱怨食物不好,还拒绝付费。

  eg. 在任何情况下我都不会相信你。Under no circumstance do I trust you.

  2、当句首为only加状语的时候,这个句子需要部分倒装。

  eg. Only with you can I feel happy. eg. 只有当你来了这,我们才可以开始会议。

  Only when you come, can we start the meeting.

  3、so......that 结构中的so位于句首时,常引起部分倒装。

  eg. He runs so fast that I can't catch up with him. 他跑得实在是太快了,以致于我都没有办法追上他。

  So fast does he run that I can't catch up with him.

  eg. The moon was so bright that the flowers bright as by day. 皓月当空,花朵就像白天那样的鲜艳。

  So bright was the moon that the flowers bright as by day.

  4、句子开头的as 处在第二个单词的位置上,表示虽然的意思。

  eg. Although I am young, I can live by myself. 虽然我很小但是我却能养活自己了。

  Young as I am, I can live by myself.

  eg. Although she is a girl, she can support the hole family. 虽然她是个女孩,但是她却可以养活整个家庭的人。

  Girl as she is, she can support the hole family.

  eg. Although I like music very much,.... Much as I like music,.....

  5、常见的固定搭配结构中需要用倒装的情况。

  hardly.....when.... 一......就...... scarcely .....when.....

  hardly,scarcely 后面一定要用过去完成时,when 后面用一般过去时。

  eg. Hardly had he seen me when he ran away. 他一看到我就跑开了。

  eg. Hardly had the baby cried when his mother rushed to carry him. 婴儿一哭,他妈妈就跑去抱他。

  no sooner....than..... 一......就......

  no sooner 后面一定要用过去完成时,than 的后面用一般过去时。

  eg. No sooner had they reached home than it rained more and more heavily. 他们一到家,雨就越下越大起来。

  the more ......the more... 越....越....

  eg. The harder you work, the happier you feel. 你工作越努力,就越觉得快乐。

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  英语四级高级语法:定语从句省略 

  一、定语从句的回顾 

  Fruit that contains vitamin C can relieve a cold. 

  The man who we met yesterday is a famous psychologist. 

  iuThis is the right book that you are looking for. 

  二、关系词充当宾语的时候

  三、关系词充当主语 

  (1)谓语结构为实词 

  (2)谓语结构为be + 名词

  四、先行词为the way 

  定语从句省略 

  A control box fitted to the car contains a mini-cellphone, a micro-processor and memory, and a GPS (全球定位系统) satellite positioning receiver. (06。6旧) 

  She is likely to have fewer but healthier children and can insist on the development of all her children, ensuring that her daughters are given a fair chance. (06。6旧) 

  Interest in pursuing international careers has soared in recent years, enhanced by chronic (长久的) personnel shortages that are causing companies to search beyond their home borders for talent.(06。6旧) 

  It enrolls 90,000 student , a statistic used to support its claim to be the largest private university in the country.(07.12) 

  Over the past three decades the number of students leaving home each year to study abroad has grown at annual rate of 3.9 percent, form 800,000 in 1975 to 2.5 million in 2004. (07.12) 

  18. W: You had a job interview yesterday, didn’t you? How did it go? 

  M: Not too bad, I guess. There were about 20 candidates competing for the sales manager’s job. And finally it was down to three of us, but the other two seemed better qualified. 

  Q: What does the man imply? 

  A)He is confident he will get the job. 

  B)His chance of getting the job is slim. 

  C)It isn’t easy to find a qualified sales manager. 

  D)The interview didn’t go as well as he expected. 

  Hamilton isn’t the only educator crossing the Atlantic. 09.12 

  汉密尔顿并不是第一位跨越大西洋到外国任职的教育家。 

  when the board of the University of Colorado searched for a new president, it wanted a leader (who is) familiar with the state government, a major source of the university’s budget. 科罗拉多大学董事会在遴选新校长时,想聘用一个与州政府熟悉的领导人,因为州政府是学校的主要资金来源。09.12 

  Career experts say that one of the ways (that) job seekers can stay safe while using the Internet to search out jobs is to conceal their identities. 职业专家说求职者用因特网找工作时保持安全的一个方法是隐瞒其真实身份。

msyz577明仕亚洲娱乐

  英语四级高级语法:强调句

  英语中表示强调的8种方式

  1.用形容词“very”,“single”等表示强调

  eg.You are the very person I'm looking for.

  你就是我要找的那个人。

  Red Army fought a battle on this very spot.

  红军就在此地打过一仗。

  Not a single person has been in the office this afternoon.

  今天下午竟然没有一个人来过办公室。

  2.用反身代词表示强调

  e.g.I myself will see her off at the station.

  我将亲自到车站为她送行。

  You can do it well yourself.

  你自己能做好这件事情。

  3.用助词“do/does/did+动词原形”表示强调

  e.g.The baby is generally healthy,but every now and then she does catch a cold.

  那孩子的健康状况尚好,但就是偶尔患感冒。

  Do be quiet.I told you I had a headache.

  务必安静,我告诉过你,我头疼。

  4.用“...and that”,“...and those”,等结构表示强调

  e.g.They fulfilled the task,and that in a few days.

  他们在几天内完成的就是那项任务。

  I gave her some presents,and those the day before yesterday.

  前天我送给她的就是那些礼物。

  5.用双重否定结构表示强调

  e.g.There is no reason why this new immigrant should not have the same success.

  完全有理由相信这些新移民应该拥有相同的成功。

  A man can never have too many ties.

  一个男人有再多的领带也不为过。

  I can't thank you too much.

  我无论怎样感谢你都不过份。

  A mother can never be patient enough with her child.

  I am not unfaithful to you.我对你无比忠诚。

  6.用短语“in every way”,“in no way”,“by all means”,“by no means”,“only too”,“all too”,“but too”,“in heaven”,“in the world”,“in hell”,“on earth”,“under the sun”等表示强调

  e.g.His behaviour was in every way perfect.

  他的举止确实无可挑剔。

  The news was only too true.

  这消息确实是事实。

  Where in heaven were you then?

  当时你到底在哪里?

  7.用倒装句表示强调

  8.用强调句型表示强调

  It is that或 It is who

  e.g.It was the headmaster who opened the door for me.

  正是校长为我开的门。

  It was yesterday that we carried out that experiment.

  就是在昨天我们做了那个实验。

msyz577明仕亚洲娱乐

  英语四级高级语法:从句的复习

  复合句:定语从句名词性从句状语从句

  一、定语从句:

  (1)限定性定语从句:
  1. that,which,who的使用。一个句子当中有两个相同的名词,将其中的一个名词进行替换,如果是人,用who;如果是物,用which;that既可以指人又可以指物。

  2. 谓语动词(结构)和后面的介词有两种关系:关系紧密&关系疏远;定语从句中如果谓语结构和介词关系紧密,则介词必须保留在谓语结构的后面,不能做任何位置的改动;如果谓语结构和介词关系疏远,介词一般提到which/who/that的前面; 介词加which正好表示时间,可以表达成whe- n;表示地点时,可以表达成where;表示原因时,变成why;

  3. 限定性定语从句和非限定性定语从句。限定性定语从句:定语从句和关系词关系非常紧密,删掉定语从句后,整个句子意思会改变;非限定性定语从句:定语从句和关系词关系不是很紧密,删掉定语从句后,整个句子意思不会改变,定语从句只起到补充说明的意义;

  (2)非限定性定语从句:

  eg: He won the first place in the competition, which is out of our expectation.

  ② 非限定性定语从句:which引导非限制性定语从句只能放在后面,as则只能放在句子前面。

  二、名词性从句:主语从句宾语从句表语从句同谓语从句;

  形式:名词+从句;

  连接词取决于后面的从句是什么样的形式;

  如果是陈述句,直接加that引导;

  一般疑问句:先把一般疑问句变成陈述句语序,然后在其前加上weather或者if;

  特殊疑问句:直接保留特殊疑问词,后面的句子变成陈述句语序;

  定义:在句子中起名词作用的句子,且在句子中能担任主语、宾语、表语、同谓语、介词宾语等成分;

  eg. Yuminhong, the president of New Oriental School.

  三、状语从句:两个独立的句子中间用一些含义不同的连接词连接;状语从句用来表达两个句子之间的逻辑关系;分成原因状语、条件状语、结果状语、时间状语、地点状语、让步状语、目的状语、比较状语、方式状语等九大类型;

  定语从句是名词+关系词+从句,关系词的用法取决于名词的问题;

  名词性从句:同谓语从句:名词+关系词+从句,关系词跟后面的从句有关系,如果是陈述句,直接加that引导;

  一般疑问句:先把一般疑问句变成陈述句语序,然后在其前加上weather或者if;

  特殊疑问句:直接保留特殊疑问词,后面的句子变成陈述句语序;

  宾语从句:动词+关系词+从句;

  表语从句:系动词+关系词+从句;

  主语从句:关系词+从句+谓语动词;

  名词性从句,其关系词的来源取决于后面的从句的性质。

  状语从句:完整句子1+逻辑关系词+完整句子2;

  如何区分定语从句和同谓语从句:whether,what,how接在名词后面一定是同谓语从句;关系词是when ,where,why如果前面不是时间、地点、人物,那么是同谓语从句;如果是的话,则为定语从句;如果见到which的话,which在句中翻译成“哪一个”,就是同谓语;翻译不成“哪一个”就是定语从句;that 就是看它在句中是否充当成分,如果充当成分就是定语从句;不充当成分就是同谓语从句;

  Whether the plan is feasible remains to be proved. (主语从句)

  是否这个计划是可行的仍然值得去考证。

  I worry about whether he can pass through the crisis of his illness. (宾语从句)

  我担心他是否能度过疾病的危险期。

  They are investigating the question whether the man is trustworthy. (同谓语从句)

  At time when hiring qualified people is becoming more difficult(定语从句),employers who can eliminate invalid bias from the process have a distinct advantage. (定语从句)

  在雇佣合格人才变得越来越困难的时期,那些能够在雇佣过程中消除站不住脚的偏见的雇主具有明显的优势。

  Eg. While (让步状语从句)even the modestly educated sought an elevated tone when (时间状语从句)they put pen to paper before the 1960s, even the most well regarded writing since then has sought to capture spoken English on the page.

  在20世纪60年代之前,当人们伏案写作的时候,即使那些接受教育不多的人也会追求一种高雅的风格,但是从那以后,即使是那些令人敬仰的文学作品也在追求一种口语的风格。

  Eg. About 45% of the world's population lived in the climate zone where mosquito transmit disease . 全球45%的人口都生活在这样的一个区域,这个地方的蚊子会传播疾病。

  Eg.He was an Asian American (who was) raised in a household where respectful zones in authority was show by averting your eyes . (定语从句) 他是一个亚裔美国人,在他生长的环境当中,避免与有权威的人对视是对对方尊重的一种表现。

msyz577明仕亚洲娱乐

  英语四级高级语法:从句的判别和应用

  eg:Weather she will come or not is unknown.(主语从句)

  It is unknown weather he will come or not.(主语从句)

  I don't know weather he will come or not.(宾语从句)

  The question is weather he will come or not.(表语从句)

  The question weather he will come or not is not settled.(同位语从句)

  例:09年6月真题 __________(很多人没有意识到的)is that Simon is a lover of sports , and football in particular .

  what many people didn't realize

  例:08年12月真题

  It was very dark, but Mary seemed to (本能地知道该走哪条路) .

  know which way to take by instinct 宾语从句

  例:07年12月真题

  In my sixties, one change I notice is that _________________ (我比以前更容易累了).

  I feel/get tired more easily than before

  例:真题08年6月

  Global warming may or may not be the great environmental crisis of the 21st century, but- regardless of whether it is or isn't - we won't do much about it.

  例: Because they usually receive the same score on standard examinations. There is ofen disagreement at who is the better student, Bob or Hellen?

  例:真题08年12月

  Your resume should attract a would-be boss's attention by demonstrating _____ (为什么你是某个特定职位的最佳人选). 宾语从句

  why you would be the best candidate for a certain position.

  例: Since my childhood I have found that ________ (没有什么比读书对我更有吸引力). nothing is more attractive/appealing to me than reading.

msyz577明仕亚洲娱乐

  英语四级高级语法:插入语

  插入语通常是说话者对所表达意思的一种补充、强调、解释或者是说话人的一种态度。它的位置比较灵活,常常会用逗号或者破折号和其他部分隔开,但是在语法上不会影响其他成分。

  插入语六大用法小结

  例1 _____the more expensive the camera, the better its quality.

  A.General speaking B.Speaking general

  C.Generally speaking D.Speaking generally

  小结1:许多分词短语可以用作插入语,这样的分词短语有:strictly speaking(严格地说),generally considering(一般认为), judging from……(根据……判断)等。

  例2 Two middle-aged passengers fell into the sea. ____,neither of them could swim.

  A.In fact B.Luckily C.Unfortunately D.Naturally

  小结2:常用作插入语的副词或副词短语有:indeed(的确),surely(无疑),however(然而),frankly(坦率地说),obviously(显然),naturally(天然地),luckily (happily) for sb.(算某人幸运),fortunately(幸好),strangely(奇怪),briefly(简单地说)等。

  例3 Your performance in the driving test didn’t reach the required standard,_____, you failed.

  A.in the end B.after all  C.in other words D.at the same time

  小结3:常用作插入语的介词短语有:in conclusion(总之),in a word(简而言之),in short(简而言之),in general(一般说来),in a sense(在某种意义上),in my view(在我看来),in his opinion(按照他的看法),in fact(事实上),at first(首先), in addition(此外),of course(当然),to my surprise(使我惊奇的),to her regret(使她遗憾的),for example(例如)等。

  例4 It is so nice to hear from her._____,we last met more than thirty years ago.

  A.What‘s more B.That is to say C.In other words D.Believe it or not

  小结4:用简短的句子结构作插入语,它们常置于句中或句末。这类简短的句子有:I am sure(我可以肯定地说),I believe(我相信),do you know(你知道吗),you see(你明白),I’m afraid(恐怕),it is said(据说),I suppose(我想),what’s more(而且),what’s worse(更糟糕的是),that is(也就是说),what is important(重要的是)等。

  例5 _____ with you,I have no money to spare.

  A.To be frank B.What’s more  C.In addition D.However

  小结5:常用作插入语的不定式短语有:to be sure(无疑地),to sum up(概括地说),to tell the truth(老实说)等。

  例6 _____, he should have done such a thing.

  A.Speaking general B.Strange to say  C.Luckily D.Of course

  小结6:常用作插入语的形容词或其短语有:true(真的),funny(真可笑),needless to say(不用说),most important of all(最为重要),worse still(更糟糕的),even better(更好)等。

  Bill Gates, the billionaire Microsoft chairman without a single earned university degree, is by his success raising new doubts about the worth of the business world’s favorite academic title: the MBA (Master of Business Administration).

  The problem, most participants in the debate acknowledge, is that the MBA has acquired an aura (光环) of future riches and power far beyond its actual importance and usefulness.

  Opinion surveys in the world’s two largest economies—Japan and the United States—show consumerist definitions of success becoming ever more prevalent.

msyz577明仕亚洲娱乐

  英语四级高级语法:非谓语动词

  几种做句子成分的情况

  1.不定式和动名词作主语的区别

  (1)动名词作主语时,通常用以表示一件已知的事或经验。

  不定式短语通常用来表示一件未完成的事或目的。

  Climbing mountains is interesting.爬山很有趣。(经验)

  Driving a car during the rush hour is tiring.在高峰时刻开车令人厌烦。(经验)

  (2)不定式做主语,一般用it当形式主语,把作主语的不定式短语后置。

  It took me only five minutes to finish the job.

  2.不定式、动名词和分词作表语的区别

  (1)不定式作表语

  1)不定式作表语一般表示具体动作,特别是表示将来的动作。

  To do two things at a time is to do neither.一次做两件事等于未做。

  What I would suggest is to start work at once.我的建议是立刻开始干。

  2)如果主语是不定式(表示条件),表语也是不定式(表示结果)。

  To see is to believe.百闻不如一见。

  (2)动名词作表语:动名词作表语,表示抽象的一般性的行为。

  Our work is serving the people.我们的工作是为人民服务。

  His hobby is collecting stamps.他的爱好是集邮。

  (3)分词作表语

  分词做表语有两种情况,一种是现在分词做表语,一种是过去分词做表语,这两者区别是考试中经常考到的地方。

  interesting使人感到高兴--interested感到高兴的

  exciting令人激动的--excited感到激动的

  puzzling令人费解的--puzzled感到费解的

  satisfying令人满意的---satisfied感到满意的

  旅行是有趣的,但是使人疲劳。Travelling is interesting but tiring.

  The pupils will get confused if they are made to learn too much.如果要学生学得太多,他们会感到糊涂的。

  The argument is very convincing.他的论点很令人信服。

  They were very excited at the news.听到这个消息,他们非常激动。

  3.不定式和动名词作宾语的区别

  begin开始 determine决定 manage设法 agree同意 love 喜欢 fail不能 plan计划

  (2)有少数动词只能用动名词作宾语

  acknowledge承认,admit 承认 dislike不喜欢,讨厌 advocate:提倡,主张 complete完成

  appreciate 感激,欣赏 avoid避免 enjoy享有,喜爱 delay延迟 escape逃跑,逃避 deny否认

  consider 考虑 fancy幻想,爱好 mind 介意 miss错过 finish完成,结束不得 resist抵抗,阻止 imagine设想 postpone延迟,延期 practise 实行,实践 suggest建议 prevent阻止

  keep保持 quit放弃停止 loathe非常讨厌,厌恶 recall回想

  例如:I appreciate having been given the opportunity to study abroad two years ago.

  我很感激两年前给我出国学习的机会。

  (3)有些动词后使用动名词和动词不定式作宾语的差别

  1)forget to do 忘记要去做某事(此事未做)

  forget doing忘记做过某事(此事已做过或已发生)

  2)stop to do 停止、中断(某件事),目的是去做另一件事

  stop doing 停止正在或经常做的事

  3)remember to do 记住去做某事(未做)

  remember doing记得做过某事(已做)

  4) regret to do对要做的事遗憾

  regret doing对做过的事遗憾、后悔

  5)try to do努力、企图做某事

  try doing试验、试一试某种办法

  6) mean to do打算,有意要…

  mean doing意味着

msyz577明仕亚洲娱乐

  英语四级高级语法:否定

  全部否定和部分否定

  eg. All the birds can not fly.

  Not all the birds can fly. 不是所有的鸟都会飞。

  1. 部分否定

  eg. All the birds can not fly. 并非所有的鸟都会飞。

  None of the birds can fly. 所有的鸟都不会飞。

  代词或副词如all, both,every,everybody, every day, everyone, everything, everywhere等与not搭配使用时,表示部分否定,意思为“并非都是"等。

  eg. All is not gold that glitters. 发光的并非都是金子。= Not all is gold that glitters.

  2. 全部否定

  英语中常用not, none, nobody, nothing, nowhere, neither, never等表示全部否定的概念。

  eg. Nothing in the world is difficult for one who sets his mind to it. 世上无难事,只怕有心人。

  eg. W: Daddy, I 've decided to give up science and go to business school.

  M: Well, it is your choice as long as pay your own way, but I should warn you that not everyone with a business degree will make a successful manager.

  Q: What do we learn from the conversation?

  A. The man doesn't have money for his daughter's graduate studies.

  B. The man doesn't think his daughter will get a business degree.

  C. The man insists that his daughter should pursue her studies in science.

  D. The man advises his daughter to think carefully before making her decision.

  双重否定

  1.在阅读当中出现的频率更高一些。在一个句子中出现两个否定词:not, never, hardly, scarcely, rarely, seldom, few, little, none等,双重否定表示肯定的概念。

  eg. No one can command others who cannot command himself.

  A perpson can command others who command himself. 正人先正己。

  eg. Without the ability to think critically, to defend their ideas and understand the ideas of others, they can not fully participate in our democracy.

  如果没有能力进行批判性思维,维护自己的观点,并理解他人的观点,他们就不能充分的参与我们的民主政治中来。

  2.形式否定,意义肯定

  eg. A man can never have too many ties. 一个男人可以拥有很多的领带。

  A woman can never have too many dresses. 一个女人拥有再多的衣服也不为过。

  eg. We can hardly praise his achievement too much. 对他的成就我们无论怎样赞扬也不过分。

  eg. A mother can never be patient enough with her child. 一个母亲对她的孩子再怎么耐心也不为过。

  A teacher can never be strict enough with his students. 一个老师对他的学生再怎么严格也不为过。

  这种形式主要运用于阅读当中。

msyz577明仕亚洲娱乐

  英语四级高级语法:长难句分析

  实例练习

  长句1: eg. Yale professor and Harvard Hughes Medical Institute investigator Tian Xu directs a research center focused on the genetics of human disease at Shanghai's Fudan University in collaboration with faculty colleagues from both schools.(0712阅读)

  译文:由徐天教授(耶鲁大学教授,霍华德.休斯医学院研究员)负责的人类疾病遗传学研究中心坐落在上海的复旦大学,但其工作人员却由耶鲁和复旦两所大学共同派人组成。

  长句2:eg. Assuming you make it to the end of your natural term, about 78 years for men in Australia , you'll die on average five years before a woman.(0812阅读)

  译文:假定你有幸活到生命的自然尽头--在澳大利亚男性大概是活到78岁--你平均也要比女性早去世五年。

  长句3:eg. When we begin to question our assumptions and challenge what we think we have learnd from our past, from the media , peers, family, friends, etc., we begin to realize that some of our conclusions are flawed(有缺陷的) or contrary to our fundamental values.(0906阅读)

  分析:when引导的是时间状语从句,question(质疑);challenge的宾语从句;这个句子就是一个when引导的时间状语从句,又分别在主从句当中各嵌入了一个宾语从句。

  译文:当我们开始质疑问我们的假设,并且向我们所认为的我们从过去的经历、媒体、同辈、家人及朋友那里学到的东西发出挑战的时候,我们就会开始意识到我们的独断决定是有缺陷的,或者说与我们的基本价值是相违背的。

  长句4:eg. Coincident with concerns about the accelerating loss of species and habitats has been a growing appreciation of the importance of biological diversity, the number of species in a particular ecosystem, to the health of the Earth and human well-being.

  分析:这个句子有三点需要搞清楚。首先,这个句子是一个倒装结构;句子真正的主语是appreciatio- n,其次,要弄清楚to the health....中的to是与哪个词构成逻辑语义联系。它是与前面的名词importance 构成呼应,即the importance of .... to the health..., 即“对...健康的重要意义。”最后,要知道the num -ber of species in a particular ecosystem 的作用是充当同位语,解释biological diversity这个概念。

  译文:人们对物种及其栖息地正加速丧失表示担忧,与此同时,人们一直越来越意识到生物多样性--即在一个特定生态系统中物种的总数--对于地球乃至我们人类健康的重要意义。

msyz577明仕亚洲娱乐

  大学英语四级考试涉及的语法知识点多、涉及面宽,对不少考生来说都是一个难题。希望通过本系列的学习,考生能对四级语法有更全面的掌握。

  一、物主代词概说

  表示所有关系的代词叫做物主代词,也可叫做代词所有格。

  物主代词的用法

  1)形容词性物主代词用作定语

  I love my work in the hospital.我喜欢我在医院的工作。

  How many students are there in his (her) class?他(她)班上有多少学生?

  There are many good teachers in our school.我们学校有许多好老师。

  I saw a film lasts saturday. Its title was Guerrillas on the Plains.

  我上星期六看了一个电影,名叫《平原游击队》。

  2)名词性物主代词用作主语、宾语和表语

  a)用作主语:

  Our room is on the first floor, and theirs is on the second 我们的房间在一层,他们的在二层。

  Ours is a socialist country.我们的国家是社会主义国家。

  b)用作宾语:

  I didn't borrow her dictionary. I borrowed his.我没有借她的字典,我借的是他的。

  c)用作表语:

  Whose pencil is this?-It is hers.这是谁的铅笔?

  --是她的。

  These tools are ours.这些工具是我们的。

  [注]"of+名词性物主代词"和2.12的"of+名词所有格"的用法完全一样。如:

  a friend of mine我的一个朋友(表示部分观念,意即我有不少朋友,他(她)是其中之一)

  this lovely child of yours你的这个可爱的孩子(有感情色彩)

  二、自身代词概说

  表示反射(指一个动作回射到该动作执行者本身)或强调(即用来加强名词或代词的语气)的代词叫做自身代词。

  自身代词的用法

  1)在句中作宾语,表示动作回到动作执行者的本身。如:

  Please help yourself to some lea.请自己用茶。(作help的宾语)

  The girl is too young to look after herself.这女孩太小,还不能照顾自己。(作look after的宾语)

  He was always ready to help others; he never thought of himself他总是帮助别人,从不想到自己。(作thought of的宾语)

  2)在句中作名词或代词的同位语,用来加强名词或代词的语气,作"亲自"、"本人"解。它在句中可置于名词、代词之后,也可置于句子末尾。如:

  You yourself said so.你自己是这样说的。

  The desk itself is not so heavy.书桌本身并不重。

  I fixed the window myself.这窗户是我自己装的。

  三、相互代词

  表示相互关系的代词叫做相互代词。

  相互代词的用法

  1)作宾语。如:

  Do you often see one another?你们彼此常见面吗?

  New and old students learn from each other.新老同学相互学习。.

  John and Tom helped each other.约翰和汤姆相互帮助。

  2)作定语时须用所有格。如:

  We are interested in one another's work.我们关心彼此的工作。

  The students corrected each other's mistakes in their homework.学生相互改作业中的错误。

  Students cut each other's hair.同学们相互理发。

  3)each和other有时可分开用。如:

  Each tried to persuade the other to stay at home.两个人都彼此劝说对方留在家里。

msyz577明仕亚洲娱乐

  大学英语四级考试涉及的语法知识点多、涉及面宽,对不少考生来说都是一个难题。希望通过本系列的学习,考生能对四级语法有更全面的掌握。

  指示代词概说 

  表示"这个"、"那个"、"这些"、"那些"等指示概念的代词叫做指示代词。 

  指示代词有:this这个,that那个,these这些,those那些,it那个,这个,Such如此的,如此的事物,same同样的,同样的事物。 

  指示代词this,these,that,those在句中的功用 

  指示代词this,these,that,those在句中的用法相当于名词和形容词,可用作主语、表语、宾语和定语。如: 

  This is a plane,这是一架飞机。(作主语) 

  Oh,it’s not that.噢,问题不在那儿。(作表语) 

  How do you like these?你喜欢这些吗?(作宾语) 

  This book is about Chinese traditional medicine.这是一本关于中医的书。(作定语)

  指示代词this,these,that, those的其它用法 

  1)This (these)常用来指在时间或空间上较近的事物,that(those)则常用来指时间或空间上较远的事物。如: 

  This is a sickle and that is an axe.这是一把镰刀,那是一把斧子。 

  These days are cold.这些天很冷。 

  In those days the poor people had a hard time.在那些日子里,穷人生活很苦。

  2)有时that和those指前面讲到过的事物,this和these则指下面将要讲到的事物。如: 

  I had a bad cold. That’s why I didn’t come.我伤风很厉害,所以我没有来。 

  Those two statements are not true.那两种说法是不真实的。 

  What I want to say is this:Pronunciation is very important in learning English.我所要说的是:语音在英语学习中非常重要。 

  chairman Mao honoured Lin Hulan with these words:"A great life A glorious death"毛主席用下面的话表彰刘胡兰:"生的伟大,死的光荣。"

  3)有时为了避免重复提到过的名词,常可用that或those代替。如: 

  The climate of shenyang is just as good as that of Beijing. 沈阳的气候跟北京的一样好。(that代替climate) 

  The county’s grain output of 1981 was double that of 1970.这个县1987年的粮食产量比1980年增加一倍。(that代替grain output) 

  Television sets made in Nanjing are just as good as those made in Shanghai.南京出产的电视机和上海的一样好。(those代替television sets) 

  4)This和that有时作状语用,表示"程度",意谓"这么"和"那么"。如: 

  The book is about this thick.那本书大约有这么厚。 

  I don’t want that much.我不要那么多。

  It指人时亦用作指示代词。指示代词it在汉语中不必译出。 

  如: 

  Who is it?――it’s me.是谁?--是我。 

  Oh, it’s you,Lao Wang.哦,是你呀,老王。

msyz577明仕亚洲娱乐

  大学英语四级考试涉及的语法知识点多、涉及面宽,对不少考生来说都是一个难题。希望通过本系列的学习,考生能对四级语法有更全面的掌握。

   人称代词概说

  表示"我',、"你"、"他"、"我们"、"你们"、"他们"等的词,叫做人称代词。

  人称代词的用法

  1)人称代词主格的用法

  a)作主语

  I am a cook.(炊事员) We are cooks,

  You are a teacher.(教师) You are teachers.

  He is a barber.(理发员) The yare barbers.

  She is a nurse.(护士)The yare nurses.

  It is a cart.(大车) They are carts.

  b)作表语

  It's I .是我。 Oh,it's you. 噢,是你。

  [注一]第一人称单数人称代词I (我)永远要大写。(见上面例句)

  [注二]口语习惯上不说it's I (he, she等),而说It's me (him,her等)。

  2)人称代词宾格的用法

  a)作及物动词的宾语

  The dog bit him.那只狗咬了他。

  Our P. T. teacher taught us to swim yesterday.我们的体育老师昨天教我们游泳。

  This is my new hat. Do you like it ?这是我的新帽子,你喜欢吗?

  b)作介词的宾语

  My brother often writes tome.我弟弟常给我写信。

  They took good care of us.他们无微不至地照料我们。

  3)人称代词的其他用法 各人称代词除按照自身的人称、数和格使用外,还有下列一些特殊用法:

  a)报刊的编辑和文章的作者,在发表观点时,常用we代替I (同样用our代替my)。如:

  We believe that China will make still greater progress in shipbuilding.我们相信中国的造船业将会有更大的发展。

  In our opinion this is the best film of the year.我们认为这是今年最好的影片。

  b)用she来代替国家、城市、船舶、飞机以及动物等,以表示亲切和爱抚。如:

  That's the picture of the Dongfeng; she is a 10,000 - ton class ocean - going freighter.那是万吨远洋货轮东风号的照片。

  The dog waved his tail when he saw his master.那狗看见主人就摇尾巴。

  c)北有时可用来代替小孩(child)和婴儿(baby)。如:

  The child smiled when it saw its mother.小孩见到母亲就笑了。

  d) they可用来代替一般的人,特别在"they say"中。如:

  They say there's going to be another good harvest this year.人们说今年又是个丰收年。

msyz577明仕亚洲娱乐

  大学英语四级考试涉及的语法知识点多、涉及面宽,对不少考生来说都是一个难题。希望通过本系列的学习,考生能对四级语法有更全面的掌握。

  英语冠词

  冠词分不定冠词(indefinite article)和定冠词(definite article)两种,一般无句子重音。

  1)不定冠词a,an

  a) a和an均用在单数名词之前,表示某一类人或事物中的"一个",相当于汉语的"一",但不强调数目观念。

  b) a用在辅音之前,an用在元音之前。如:a notebook一个笔记本,a cigarette一支香烟,an old man一位老人,an English class一堂英语课。

  字母u读作[ju:]时,由于第一个音[j]是辅音,故前面用a,不用an。如:a useful book一本有用的书,a university一所大学。字母h如不发音,第一个音又是元音,前面用an而不用a,如an hour [?n'au?]一小时,an honest [?n' nist] person一个诚实的人。

  c) a和an在句中分别弱读作[E]和[En]。

  2)定冠词the

  a)表示某一类人或事物中的"某一个"或"某一些",相当于汉语的"这"或"那"。

  b)不论单数名词或复数名词,也不论可数名词或不可数名词,前面都可以用the。

  c)在元音前读[Ti],辅音前读[TE]。如the evening [Ti5:vniN] (傍晚),the car [TEkB:] (汽车);在元音字母u发[ju:]和半元音字母。y发[j]时,仍读[?TE]。如the unit [TE5ju:nit] (单位),the yard [TEjB:d] (院子)。

  英语中不定冠词a (an)的用法

  1)指一个人、动物或一件事物属于某一类。如:

  Xiao Xu's father is a miner.小徐的父亲是矿工。(而不是其他工种)

  Give me a ballpen , please.请给我一支圆珠笔。(而不是钢笔或其他种类)

  2)指任何一个人、动物或一件事物。如:

  A steel worker makes steel.钢铁工人炼钢。(意即任何一个钢铁工人都炼钢)

  A triangle has three angles.三角形有三个角。(意即任何一个三角形都有三个角)

  3)指某人或某物,但不具体说明何人或何物。如:

  He comes from a firm in Beijing.他来自北京某一家公司。

  A young man wants to see you.有个青年人要见你。

  A car stopped in front of the gate.一辆汽车停在大门前。

  4)不定冠词还可指"事物的单位",如"每日"、"每斤"等。如:

  Butter is 4 yuan a kilo.黄油四元钱一公斤。

  He drove the car at 18 miles an hour.他行车速度为每小时十八英里。

  The Chinese Export Commodities Fair is held in Guangzhou twice a year.中国出口商品交易会每年在广州举行两次。

  The doctor told him to take the medicine three times a day. 医生叫他一天吃三次药。

msyz577明仕亚洲娱乐

  大学英语四级考试涉及的语法知识点多、涉及面宽,对不少考生来说都是一个难题。希望通过本系列的学习,考生能对四级语法有更全面的掌握。

  有关英语名词格的概述

  格(case)是名词或代词具有的形式及其变化,表示与其它词的关系。英语的名词有三个格:主格(nominative case)、宾语(objective case)和所有格(possessive case)。但英语的名词除所有格有形式的变化外,主格和宾格都没有形式变化。名词在句中是主格或是宾格,主要通过它在句中的作用和位置来确定。如:

  My brother always misplaces his schoolbag.我弟弟常常乱放他的书包。

  (brother是主语,故为主格;schoolbag是misplaces的宾语,故是宾格)

  Every written sentence should begin with a capital letter.每个书写出来的句子开头都要用大写字母。(sentence在句中作主语,故是主格;letter是介词with的宾语,故是宾格)

  表示有生命的东西的名词的所有格

  表示有生命的东西的名词(人或动物)的末尾,加上's,即构成所有格,可放在另一名词之前,作定语用。如:

  John's friend约翰的朋友

  Xiao Wang's notebook小王的笔记本

  children's books儿童读物

  my father's room我父亲的房间

  英语名词所有格与它所修饰的名词的逻辑关系

  名词所有格在逻辑上可能是它所修饰的名词的主语,也可能是它所修饰的名词的宾语。

  1)名词所有格是它所修饰的名词的逻辑主语。如:

  the Party's concern of the younger generation党对年青一代的关怀

  the hatred of the soldiers for the enemy士兵对敌人的仇恨

  2)名词所有格是它所修饰的名词的逻辑宾语。如:

  the reactionary rule's overthrow反动统治的被****

  the occupation of the city by the enemy敌人对该城的占领

  "of+名词所有格"

  上面讲的两种所有格的形式可以结合起来,构成"of'+所有格"形式,表示部分观念或感情色彩。这种所有格叫做双重所有格。如:

  1)表示部分观念:

  a friend of my sister's (= one of my sister's friends)我妹妹的一个朋友;a picture of Mr. Wu's吴先生(具有的照片中)的一张照片(比较:a picture of Mr. Wu吴先生本人的照片,即照片上是吴先生的像)。

  2)表示感情色彩:

  this lovely child of your aunt's你婶母的这个可爱的孩子

  名词所有格所修饰的词的省略

  名词所有格所修饰的词,如果前面已经提到,往往可以省略,以免重复。如:

  The dictionary is not mine, but Xiao Wang's.这本词典不是我的,是小王的。

  名词所有格后面指地点等的名词,有的习惯上可省去不用。如:

  I met him at the Johnson's (shop).我在约翰逊商店遇见了他。

  I went to my uncle's (house) yesterday.我昨天到我叔叔家去

msyz577明仕亚洲娱乐

  大学英语四级考试涉及的语法知识点多、涉及面宽,对不少考生来说都是一个难题。希望通过本系列的学习,考生能对四级语法有更全面的掌握。

  代词作主语时的一致

  each, either, neither和由some, any, no, every构成的复合代词,都作单数看待.

  Each of us has something to say.

  Is everybody ready?

  Somebody is using the phone.

  Neither of us has gone through regular training.

  Has either of them told you?

  some, few, both, many 等作复数

  some 可后接复数,也可接单数,表示某一.

  none作复数看待时较多,但也有时作单数看待,主要看说话人脑中联系想到的是复数还是单数概念, 但none 在代表不可数的东西时总是看作单数:

  None of the books are easy enough for us

  None of us seem to have thought of it.

  None (= not a single one) of us has got a camera.

  None (= nobody) has felt it more keenly than she did.

  None of this worries me.

  all 和most 可后接复数,也可接不可数名词 (all of the…, most of the …), 动词用单数.

  由and 或 both… and 连接名词词组时, 后用复数; 由not only…but (also), either…or, neither…nor或 or 连接的并列主语, 谓语通常和最邻近的主语一致.

  Not only the switches but also the old writing has been changed.

  My sister or my brother is likely to be at home.

  Either you or Mr Yang is to do the work.

  Neither my wife nor I myself am able to persuade my daughter to change her mind.

  如果一个句子是由there 或here引导, 而主语又不止一个, 谓语通常也和最邻近的那个主语一致。

  There was carved in the board a dragon and a phoenix.

  Here is a pen, a few envelopes and some paper for you.

  people, police, cattle, poultry (家禽), militia (民兵) 等通常都用作复数.

  Cattle are grazing on the pasture.

  The police are looking for him.

  有些集体名词有时作单数看待, 有时作复数看待, 主要根据意思来决定.

  His family isn’t very large.

  His family are all music lovers.

  The committee meets twice a month.

  The committee are divided in opinion.

  The audience was enormous.

  The audience were greatly moved at the words.

  有些名词单复数同形, 可根据意思决定谓语动词的数:

  This new series is beginning next month.

  These new series are beginning next month.

  This species is now extinct.

  These species are now extinct.

  表示时间, 重量, 长度, 价值等的名词, 尽管仍是复数形式, 如果作整体看待, 动词也可用单数形式 (当然用复数动词也是可以的):

  Three weeks was allowed for making the necessary preparations.

  One hundred li was covered in a single night.

  书名, 国家名用单数:

  Tales from Shakespeare is a book by Charles Lamb.

  学科名, 如mathematics, economics用单数.

  many a 或more than one 所修饰的词作主语时, 谓语动词多用单数形式:

  Many a person has had that kind of experience.

  More than one person has involved in the case.

  a number of 后接复数, the number of后接单数:

  A number of books have been published on the subject.

  The number of books published on the subject is simply amazing.

  one of those 后用单数. 在“one of + 复数名词 +关系分句”结构中,关系分句中谓语动词的单复数形式在一般情况下有两形式,一是根据先行词采用复数形式:

  Joan is one of those people who go out of their way to be helpful.

  当one 之前友the only 等限定词和修饰语时,关系分句谓语动词根据one 而定,即采用单数形式:

  He is the only one of those boys who is willing to take on another assignment.

  Joan is one of those people who go out of their way to be helpful.

  当one 之前友the only 等限定词和修饰语时,关系分句谓语动词根据one 而定,即采用单数形式:

  He is the only one of those boys who is willing to take on another assignment.

msyz577明仕亚洲娱乐

  英语四级高级语法:让步状语从句 

  常见的连接词有though, although,as, while, even though 

  区分though,although,as 

  eg:Although/though he is a child, he can live by himself.

  as 表示虽然的时候,要进行倒装; 

  Child as/though he is , he can live by himself. 

  eg:Although/though she works very hard ,she makes very little progress.

  Hard as she works, she makes very little progress. 

  Although/though she is young, she has travelled to many countries to put shows . 

  Young as she is, she has travelled to many countries to put shows .

  while:连接两个句子,表示虽然,但是; 

  eg:He is experienced while he is young.

  真题分析: 

  1.The anti-virus agent was not known 

  (直到一名医生偶然发现了它) 

  until a doctor find it by chance. 

  2.I would prefer shopping online to shopping in a department store because __________(它更加方便和省时) 

  it is more convenient and timesaving. 

  3.But since water is much cheaper than wine, and many of the fancier brands aren’t available in stores, most diners don’t notice or care. 

  4. While there’s no question that continuous stress is harmful, several studies suggest that challenging situations in which you’re able to rise to the occasion can be good for you.

msyz577明仕亚洲娱乐

  大学英语四级考试涉及的语法知识点多、涉及面宽,对不少考生来说都是一个难题。希望通过本系列的学习,考生能对四级语法有更全面的掌握。

  Ⅰ动词(时态,语态,用法,省略,一致性等)

  时态

  1)现在完成进行时态 (have/has been + -ing 分词构成): 动作或状态从过去某时开始,继续到现在,可能继续下去,也可能刚刚结束.

  I’ve been writing letters for an hour.

  I’ve been sitting in the garden.

  2)过去完成进行时(由had been + ing分词构成): 过去某个时刻以前一直在进行的动作

  I’d been working for some time when he called.

  We had been waiting for her for two hours by the time she came.

  3)将来完成进行时: 将来某个时刻以前一直在进行的动作.

  By next summer, he will have been working here for twenty years.

  In another month’s time she’ll have been studying here for three years.

  4)将来完成时(由shall/will have + 过去分词构成): 将来某时已发生的事.

  I shall have finished this one before lunch.

  They’ll have hit the year’s target by the end of October.

  语态

  可以有两种被动结构的类型,例如:

  He was said to be jealous of her success.

  It was said that he was jealous of her success.

  能同时适用于上述两个句型的主动词通常都是表示“估计”,“相信”等意义的动词,常见的有assume,believe,expect,fear,feel,know,presume,report,say,suppose,understand等.

  It is supposed that the ship has been sunk.

  The ship is supposed to have been sunk.

  担当be supposed to 与不定式的一般形式搭配时往往表示不同的意义.例如:

  Why are you driving so fast in this area? You are supposed to know the speed to know the speed limit. (你应该晓得速度限制)

  双宾语及宾补结构的被动语态

  双宾语结构的被动语态: 双宾语结构变为被动语态时,可以把主动结构中的一个宾语变为主语,另一个宾语仍然保留在谓语后面,但多数是把间接宾语变为主语.

  He was asked a number of questions at the press conference.

  Two days were allowed them for making the necessary preparations.

  宾补结构的被动语态:

  She was called Big Sister by everybody.

  Then he was made a squad leader.

  He was considered quite qualified for the job.

  The room was always kept clean and tidy.

  短语动词

  Vi + adv

  The plane took off two hours late.

  Vi + prep

  They looked round the Cathedral.

  Vi + prep (有被动语态)

  She’s looking after her sister’s children.

  The children were always well looked after.

  Vi + adv + prep

  I began to look forward to their visits.

  Vt + O + adv

  Some women choose to stay at home and bring up their children.

  The children were brought up by their mother.

  They took him on.

  Vt + adv + O (无被动语态)

  I am trying to give up smoking.

  Vt + O + prep

  We talked Donald into agreement.

msyz577明仕亚洲娱乐

  大学英语四级考试涉及的语法知识点多、涉及面宽,对不少考生来说都是一个难题。希望通过本系列的学习,考生能对四级语法有更全面的掌握。

  英语四级语法讲义:词类(parts of speech)

  英语的词通常分为十大类:

  1)名词(noun,缩写为n.)是人和事物的名称,如pen(钢笔),English(英语),life(生活)。

  2)代词(pronoun,缩写为pron.)是用来代替名词的词,如we(我们),his(他的),all(全部)。

  3)形容词(adjective,缩写为adj.)用来修饰名词,如great(伟大的),honest(诚实的),difficult(困难的)。

  4)数词(numeral,缩写为num.)是表示"多少"和"第几"的词,如four(四),eighteen(十八),first(第一),eighth(十八),hundred(一百)。

  5)动词(verb,缩写为v)表示动作和状态,如write(写),walk(行走),think(想)。

  6)副词(adverb,缩写为。adv.)是修饰动词、形容词和副词的词,如quickly(快),often(经常),very(很)。

  7)冠词(article,缩写为art.)说明名词所指的人或物的词,如a,an(一个),the(这,那)。

  8)介词(preposition,缩写为prep.)表示名词(或代词)与句子里其它词的关系,如from(从),in(在…内),between(在…之间)。

  9)连词(conjunction,缩写为conj.)是连接词、短语、从句和句子的词,如and(和),because(因为),if(假如)。

  10)感叹词(interjection,缩写为int.)表示感情,如。oh(噢),aha(啊哈),hush(嘘)。

  [注一]属于前六类(名、代、形、数、动、副等词)的词都有实义,叫做实词(notional word)。属于后四类(冠、介、连、感等词)的词没有实义,叫做虚词(form word)。

  [注二]不少词可以属于几个词类,如work(工作;动词和名词),fast(快;形容词和副词),since(自从;连词和介词)等。

msyz577明仕亚洲娱乐

  大学英语四级考试涉及的语法知识点多、涉及面宽,对不少考生来说都是一个难题。希望通过本系列的学习,考生能对四级语法有更全面的掌握。

  英语四级语法讲义:句子成分(members of the sentence)

  英语的句子由主语部分与谓语部分组成。具体地讲,主要有下列六种句子成分:

  1)主语(subject)它是句子所要说明的人或事物,是一句的主体。如I study English(我学习英语)中的I。

  2)谓语动词(predicate verb)它是说明主语的动作或状态的,如I study English中的study。

  3)表语(predicative)它是放在连系动词之后表示主语的身分或特征的,如I am a student(我是一个学生)中的student;Our classroom is clean(我们的教室很干净)中的clean。

  4)宾语(object)它是表示及物动词动作的对象的,如I study English中的English。介词后面的名词或代词,叫做介词的宾语,如They don't work on Sunday(他们星期天不工作)中的Sunday,就是介词on的宾语。

  5)定语(attribute)它是限定或修饰名词或代词用的,如He likes to drink co1d milk(他喜欢喝冷牛奶)中的co1d。

  6)状语(adverbial)它是修饰动词、形容词、副词用的,如He works hard(他努力工作)中的hard。

  [注]虚词在句子中一律不能作为句子成分。

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